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Table 3 Existing cabled seafloor observatories

From: Ocean Observation Technologies: A Review

ProjectInstallation timeDeveloperObjective
LEO-15 [94]1996WHOILong-term ecosystem observing off the central coast of New Jersey
HUGO [109]1997The University of HawaiiStudying undersea volcanism and associated phenomena at Loihi, the newest volcano of the Hawaiian chain
H2O [110]1998WHOI, The University of Hawaii, and Margus, Inc, etc.Studying seismology
VENUS1999JAMSTECEco-monitoring and fit for manned submersible
MVCO [111]2000WHOIStudying coastal atmospheric and oceanic processes of Martha’s Vineyard Coast
DONET [98]2006JAMSTECPrecise earthquake and tsunami monitoring
VENUS [103]2006The University of VictoriaUnderstanding biological, chemical, and physical processes of the coastal waters of southern Vancouver Island
NEPTUNE [97, 102]2007The University of VictoriaStudying hydrothermal systems, gas hydrates, the coupling between physical and biological systems, the dynamics of deep-sea benthic ecosystems, the inshore physical and biological oceanography, etc.
MARS [104]2008Monterey Bay Aquarium Research InstituteLong-term measurements in deep benthic environments
ACO [105]2011The University of HawaiiInvestigating temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry
ESONET [107, 112]2011EuropeUnderstanding the role of Arctic Ocean for climate changes, long-term observation on mud-volcano eruptions in the Norwegian margin, studying biogeochemical processes of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, etc.
RSN [106]2012The University of Washington, etc.Serving future science needs and technological advances
NIED [99]2014National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)Monitoring earthquake, tsunami and vertical crustal deformation
SCSSON [108]2016Zhejiang University, Tongji University, etc.Studying ocean dynamics and biogeochemical processes, and preventing disasters, etc.