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Table 1 Evolution of cutting force measurement

From: Advanced Data Collection and Analysis in Data-Driven Manufacturing Process

Year Indirect measurement Direct measurement
Before 2000 Current sensor [36, 37]  
2001–2010 Displacement sensor [38] Strain gauge [39]
Piezoelectric sensor [40]
2011–2020   Smart tooling [43, 44]
Wireless cutting force sensor [41]
Embedded PVDF [42]