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TableĀ 3 The main procedures of the parameter identification method

From: A Comparative Study of Fractional Order Models on State of Charge Estimation for Lithium Ion Batteries

Step 1: Present the range of nonlinear parameters and stopping criteria.
Step 2: Randomly generate the population in the range.
Step 3: Generate the Uc and/or Uw vectors using discretised model equations in TableĀ 2.
Step 4: Identify [Uoc, Ri] using least squares and output the RMSE.
Step 5: Evaluate the stopping criteria. If the criteria are met, stop and return the best solution. If not, go to the next step.
Step 6: Generate a new population by crossover, mutation and selection. Go to Step 3.