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Table 1 Characteristic of PVA hydrogel

From: Sensitivity of Influential Factors on Needle Insertion Experiments: A Quantitative Analysis on Phantom Deformations and Needle Deflections

Ratio of DMSO to water Young’s modulus (kPa) (min, mean, max)
3/7 9.2, 11.9, 14.6
4/6 26.1, 29.8, 31.3
5/5 53.5, 55.4, 56.9