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Table 2 Simulation result of LTV-MPC and PID controller

From: Energy-Optimal Braking Control Using a Double-Layer Scheme for Trajectory Planning and Tracking of Connected Electric Vehicles

  Regeneration energy efficiency αr (%) Braking duration (s) Distance d (m) Terminal velocity ve (m/s)
Original trajectory 68.21 7.30 198.85 20.09
LTV-MPC controller 68.18 7.32 198.88 20.10
PID controller 64.35 7.68 208.81 20.13