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Table 3 Comparison of different sensors

From: Cloud Control System Architectures, Technologies and Applications on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles: a Review

Category Sub-category Adaptability Scope (m) Accuracy Recognition ability Range measurement Velocity measurement Vehicle/road side
Visual Monocular [93,94,95] * 80‒120 * * * * y/y
Visual Stereo [95, 96] * ≤50 *** *** * * y/y
Visual Panoramic [97, 98] * 200‒250 * N/A N/A N/A y/y
Visual Infrared [99, 100] *** 150‒300 *** *** N/A N/A y/y
Radar MW Radar [85, 101, 102] *** 5‒70 (24GHz)
150‒200 (77GHz)
* *** * * y/y
LiDAR 4-line [103, 104] *** 0.3‒200 * *** * * y/y
LiDAR 16-line [105, 106] *** 0.3‒200 *** *** * * y/y
LiDAR 32-line [106, 107] *** 0.3‒200 *** *** *, Height * y/n
LiDAR 64-line [106, 108] *** 0.3‒200 *** *** *, Height * y/n
  1. Note: ‘*’ for weak/low, ‘***’ for strong/high, ‘y/n’ for yes/no and ‘N/A’ for not applicable