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Table 4 Summary of path tracking control methods [125]

From: Cloud Control System Architectures, Technologies and Applications on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles: a Review

Control methods Optimization objectives Advantages Disadvantages References
Pure Pursuit & Stanley Position deviation & course deviation Simple layout, suitable for vehicle position control Difficult to apply to high speed and large road curvature conditions [126,127,128]
PID Position deviation & course deviation Simple, easy to apply Poor versatility, difficult in tuning control parameters [129,130,131,132]
Model-Free Control  Preview course deviation Simple controller structure Stability analysis is more difficult [133,134,135]
LQR System states & control input Easy to achieve closed-loop optimal control objective Controller design based on linear model (poor robustness) [136,137,138]
Feedforward and Feedback Feedback error, feedforward information Able to deal with external disturbances, modeling errors, and sensor noise Require more expensive sensors [139, 140]
MPC System states & control input Able to handle system constraints and future prediction in design process Difficult to analyze system stability, has high computational cost [141,142,143]
HControl System H performance index Easy to establish Hconstraints, strong robustness Has complex solution process and theoretical derivation, can only handle bounded disturbances [144,145,146]
Sliding Mode Control Position deviation & course deviation Fast response and insensitivity to parameter changes and disturbances Chattering effect that requires adaptive mechanism [147,148,149]
Robust MPC System states & control input Able to handle system constraints and has strong robustness Difficult to analyze system stability and has high computational cost [150,151,152]
Neural Network-based Observation N/a Optimal approximation, rapid training, fast convergence Require large amount of vehicle state information for training [153,154,155]
  1. Note: Table 4 is a summarized table from Ref. [125] in the last decade. Please refer to Ref. [125] for the full list of path-tracking algorithm review.