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Table 3 Summary of diffusible hydrogen content in samples prepared by underwater laser/arc welding/cladding techniques

From: Underwater Laser Welding/Cladding for High-performance Repair of Marine Metal Materials: A Review

Material Processing condition Water depth (m) Hydrogen content (mL/100 g) Ref.
316L SS Repaired by In-air DMD 0 1.286 *
  Repaired by ULDMD 1 2.051 *
HSLA-100 Repaired by ULDMD 0.02 0.562 [46]
  Repaired by ULDMD 0.08 0.337 [46]
  Repaired by ULDMD 0.15 0.618 [46]
  Repaired by ULDMD 1 1.685 *
ER308L Underwater local dry laser cladding 0.5 [38]
HSLA S355 Underwater local dry arc welding 5-21 [52]
S235JRG2 Underwater wet welding 45.90-87.40 [56]
S235JR Underwater wet welding 0.2 25.85-44.12 [57]
E40 Underwater wet welding 0.5 18.6-24.5 [58]
E40 Underwater wet welding 150 66.3 [59]
E40 In-air flux-cored arc welding 0 <15 [59]
IIW Standard Welding < 5 [38]
Ti-6Al-4V Repaired by In-air DMD 0 0.0066% (wt.%) [49]
  Repaired by ULDMD 0.055 0.0095% (wt.%) [49]
  AMS 4911L standard 0.015% (wt.%) [60]
  1. Note: The symbol * represents that the data were obtained by the authors