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Table 7 Comparison of results according to draw ratios (2.3–2.5) in the 1st deep drawing

From: Deep Drawing Process Using a Tractrix Die for Manufacturing Liners for a CNG High-Pressure Vessel (Type II)

Draw ratio 2.3 2.4 2.5
DDI process 1st stage Deep drawing Deep drawing Deep drawing
2nd stage Redrawing 1 \(\to\) ironing 1 \(\to\) ironing 2 Redrawing \(\to\) ironing 1 Redrawing \(\to\) ironing 1
3rd stage Redrawing 2 \(\to\) ironing 3 Ironing 2 Ironing 2
Number of processes 5 4 4
Inflow angle of workpiece 13\(^\circ\) 9\(^\circ\) 5\(^\circ\)
Volume of tractrix die \(4.66\times {10}^{8}\, {\mathrm{mm}}^{3}\) \(5.71\times {10}^{8}\, {\mathrm{mm}}^{3}\) \(7.45\times {10}^{8}\, {\mathrm{mm}}^{3}\)