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Table 2 Fracture toughness of soft biological tissue

From: Recent Advances in Soft Biological Tissue Manipulating Technologies

Material (Cutting) Fracture toughness (J/m2) Measuring method Refs.
Porcine liver 76‒185 Inserted with a needle [44]
Porcine liver 187‒225 Cutting with a blade [30]
Porcine liver 164 ± 6 Inserted with a needle [70]
Porcine skin 17100 Trouser tear tests [66]
Porcine skin 1136 Inserted with a needle [71]
Porcine skin 20400 Trouser tear tests [5]
30400 Single edge notched test
Chicken skin 2800 Cutting with a scissor [35]
Rat skin 1700 Cutting with a scissor [72]
Rat skin 13700±2290 (Circumferential) Uniaxial tensile test [68]
22600±1840 (Longitudinal)
Porcine descending aortas 1700 Trouser tear tests [73]
Porcine muscle 550‒8000 Single edge notched test [74]
Porcine adipose 4100 Trouser tear tests [71]
Human amniotic membranes 960 ± 110 ~ 1830 ± 180 Uniaxial tensile test and single edge notched test [75]
Porcine aorta 290 ± 110 Cutting with a blade [13]
Porcine cornea 3390 ± 570 ~ 5400 ± 480 Trouser tear tests [76]
Articular cartilage 140‒1200 Modified single edge notched test [77]
Porcine lamina propria 266.1 ± 72.6 (Coronal location 1)
451.1 ± 87.9 (Coronal location 2)
333.9 ± 82.4 (Coronal location 3)
169.4 ± 30.1 (Transverse location)
Cutting with a blade [78]