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Table 5 Subtractive manufacturing of microneedles

From: A Review of Nano/Micro/Milli Needles Fabrications for Biomedical Engineering

Fabrication methods Fabrication illustrations SEM images Materials Advantages Typical limitations Typical applications
Photolithography and etching View full size image Solid microneedles
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Silicon, Tungsten High precision, high efficiency, fit for mass production Expensive equipment, harsh environment, multiple steps Bio-sensoring, drug delivery
Micro machining
 Laser machining View full size image Solid microneedles
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Copper, Titanium, Stainless steel High efficiency, maskless, high flexibility, non-contact machining Rough surface quality, lower machining accuracy, arced needle tip Bio-electrode, bio-sensoring, drug delivery, bioinspired microneedles
 Mililing machining View full size image Solid microneedles
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Aluminum alloy, Stainless steel 316L High precision, good surface quality Low efficiency, high cost Microneedle template
 Wire electrical discharge machining View full size image Solid microneedles
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Stainless steel High precision, good aspect ratio, reproducibility Time consuming, limited material Bio-electrode