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Table 6 Formative manufacturing of microneedles

From: A Review of Nano/Micro/Milli Needles Fabrications for Biomedical Engineering

Methods Fabrication illustrations SEM images Materials Advantages Typical limitations Typical applications
Micro casting View full size image Solid microneedles
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Polymer, Hydrogel High efficiency, low cost, easy operation, fit for mass production High resolution mold, low flexibility, multiple steps Bio-electrode, transdermal drug delivery, triboelectric nanogenerator
Micro injection molding View full size image Porous microneedles
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Titanium, Stainless steel 316L, Aluminum Fit for porous microneedle, controllable porosity Low efficiency, low flexible, multiple steps Transdermal drug delivery, bio-sensing