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Table 7 Additive manufacturing of microneedles

From: A Review of Nano/Micro/Milli Needles Fabrications for Biomedical Engineering

Methods Fabrication illustrations SEM images Materials Advantages Typical limitations Typical applications
Typical 3D printing
 Stereolithography View full size image Solid microneedles
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Photo curable polymer High efficiency, high repeatability, high flexibility Poor surface quality, rough surface, large tip radius Transdermal drug delivery
 Digital light processing View full size image Bioinspired microneedles
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Photo curable polymer Complex 3D structure, high flexibility, non-contact machining Rough surface, limited materials, Transdermal drug delivery, fog harvest
Drawing method
 Thermal drawing View full size image Solid microneedles
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SU-8, PLGA, Maltose High aspect ratio, high efficiency, maskless Low repeatability, limited materials, high temperature Bio-electrode, brain-computer interface
 Magnetorheological drawing View full size image Bioinspired microneedles
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Curable magnetorheological fluid One-step fabrication, maskless, high flexibility Low biocompatibility, limited material Transdermal drug delivery, bio-electrode, bio-sensing