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Table 1 Concept of DT

From: Application of Digital Twin in Smart Battery Management Systems

Institutions / Authors Year Concept Key Point
NASA [27] 2010 DT is an integrated multi-physics, multi-scale, probabilistic simulation of a vehicle or system that uses the best available physical models, sensor updates, fleet history, etc., to mirror the life of its flying twin. Integration, simulation
Rosen et al. [28] 2014 DT is a kind of life cycle management through model and simulation which include the state information and historical information of the aircraft when manufacturing and using to realize the high-fidelity modeling of the aircraft in the full life cycle. High-fidelity model
Schluse et al. [29] 2016 DT is virtual substitutes for the real world and contains virtual presentation and communication capabilities, constituting smart objects as intelligent nodes within the IoT and services. Virtual substitutes
Söderberg et al. [30] 2017 DT uses faster optimization algorithms, powerful computing power and big data to realize real-time control and product optimization in the field of simulation. Real-time control and optimization
Xu et al. [31] 2018 DT dynamically represents a physical entity and its functions, behaviors, and rules. Dynamic model
Wang et al. [32] 2019 DT dynamically transmits selected online measurement data to the simulation world so that the running simulation model can reversely and adaptively control the real world. Dynamic, feedback control
Wu et al. [24] 2020 DT is a digital replica of a physical entity, and there is a close connection between the two. Data, model, AI