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Table 4 Overview of process features and material properties for all process-material combinations

From: Micro-scale Realization of Compliant Mechanisms: Manufacturing Processes and Constituent Materials—A Review

Process Material Smallest resolution (μm) Max. thickness (μm) Aspect ratio Manuf. error Manuf. cost Young’s Modulus (GPa) Poisson’s ratio Failure strength (MPa) Max. allowable strain (%)
Surface micromachining Polysilicon [46] 1‒5 < 10 < 10 Low High 150‒170 0.23 ~ 1640 ~ 1.05
Aluminium [112] 1‒5 2 Low 60‒75 0.32 ~ 100 ~ 0.15
PI-2611 [113] 20‒50 10 8.5 350
Bulk micromachining Silicon [114] 1‒5 20‒30 Low High 150‒170 0.23 < 7000*1 1‒2
PET [52] ~ 20 250 ~ 10 Low 2.8 0.37‒0.44 60 2
Laser micromachining Aluminium [115] 20‒30 < 100 < 5 High Low 70 0.35 276 0.4
Nickel [62] 20‒30 10‒20 < 1 High Low 210 0.31 475 0.2
PMMA [64] 500 ~ 1000 ~ 2 High Low 1.8 0.35 76 4
PU [116] ~ 10 100‒200 10‒20 High Low 0.076
PZT [65] 100 200 < 1 High Low 67 0.3 0.1
Wire EDM Titanium [69] 100‒200 ~ 1000 5‒10   Low 116 0.32 950 0.8
Aluminium [68] 100‒200 500‒1000 < 10   Low 70 0.35 276 0.4
Micro molding Nickel (LIGA) [57] < 1 200 100 Low High 115±10 0.31 ~ 310 0.3
Nickel [76] ~ 5 20‒200*2 10 High Low 110‒220*3 0.31 ~ 310 0.1‒0.3
Nife [117] ~ 5 20‒200*2 10 High Low 182 0.3
PDMS [25] High Low 3×10−4‒1.8×10−3 0.38 2.24 ~ 200
POM [79] High Low 2.57 0.38 62 2.4
SU-8 processing SU-8 [118] 10‒20 > 500 40‒50 High Low 2‒5 0.22 35‒70 1‒2
CNT frameworking CNT-PDMS [99] 10 < 100 10 High Low 1.89×10−2/7.95×10−3 0.20 20
CNT-carbon [33] 10 > 200 40 Low 4‒6 0.28 ~ 110 2‒2.5
3D printing FDM/ABS [102] 200 High Low 1.19‒2.9 0.29 18.5‒51 0.6‒4
FDM/nylon [103] 200 High Low 2.6‒3.0 0.39 78 2‒3
SLA/R11 [106] 25 > 1000 > 40 Low High 2 0.3 54 2.7
2PP/IP-Dip [110] 1 > 50 > 50 Low High 3‒4 ~ 60 1.5‒2
ΜCLIP/CN982A75&PEGDA [105] 7‒8 > 1000 > 100 Low High 0.014‒0.021 0.3
  1. Note: *1Petersen reported that single-crystal silicon has a failure strength of 7 GPa [53]. It is commonly accepted that the failure strength of single-crystal silicon is slightly higher than that of polysilicon, but not as high as 7 GPa
  2. *2The maximum thickness depends on the mold material used. For example, SU-8 can mold structures as thick as 200 μm, whereas AZ4620 only allows 20 μm
  3. *3The mechanical properties of electroplated nickel strongly depend on the electroplating conditions