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Table 2 Comparison and potential application of soft sensors in robotics

From: A Review of Smart Materials for the Boost of Soft Actuators, Soft Sensors, and Robotics Applications

Soft sensor Resistance sensor Capacitance sensor Magnetic sensor Optical waveguide sensor
Advantages Stretchable; Larger strain; Simple structure; Low cost High sensitivity; Low hysteresis; Fast response;
Low power consumption; Simple design
Low hysteresis; Compact structure; Low cost;
Contact-free sensing capability;
Inherent electrical safety; Immunity to electromagnetic interference; Small size; Low hysteresis
Limitations High hysteresis;
Nonlinear signal;
Affected by the electric field, magnetic field, vibration, temperature
High cost; Affected by the external electric and magnetic field Affected by the external electric and magnetic field Low stretchability and stiff of traditional optical fibers
Applications Measure tensile deformation, normal force, shear force, bending degree; Flexible touch screen; Electronic skin, etc. Measure tensile deformation, normal force and shear force; Flexible touch screen; Electronic skin, etc. Deformation detection; Force recognition; Shape and posture recognition Measure force, deformation and bending; Identify shapes and textures of objects