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Table 1 List of current major digital twin technologies in the past decade

From: Digital Twin for Integration of Design-Manufacturing-Maintenance: An Overview

Year Author/affiliation Field Overview Refs.
2011 Eric J. Tuegel
U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory
Aviation A conceptual model for predicting the lifetime and ensuring the structural integrity of aircraft structures using digital twin technology is proposed [48], [49], [76]–[78]
2012 E. H. Glaessgen
Durability and Damage Tolerance Branch
NASA Langley Research Center
Aviation and aerospace Combining digital twin technology with ultra-high fidelity simulation, an integrated vehicle on-board health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to reflect the lifespan of its on-the-fly digital twin [34], [46], [47]
2014 Albert Cerrone
Cornell University
Structural fracture damage By applying the concept of digital twins, the diagnosis of ambiguity in crack paths indicated the need to consider fabricated specimens [79]–[81]
2016 Dr. Edward M. Kraft
United States Air Force
Aviation The USAF is developing and applying a Digital Thread/Digital Twin analysis framework to provide engineering analysis capabilities and support for decision making throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle [82]
2016 Schroeder, Greyce N
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Future manufacturing and product services In the context of cyber-physical systems for implementing digital twins for future manufacturing and product service systems, a method is proposed for modelling the attributes associated with digital twins using AutomationML [83]–[88]
2017 Alam, Kazi Masudul
University of Ottawa
Cyber-physical system A reference model for a cloud-based CPS, the digital twin architecture of C2PS, is proposed, in which the key attributes of C2PS are described analytically [30], [35], [63], [89]–[92]
2017 Banerjee, Agniva
University Of Maryland
Industrial production lines A simple method for formulating knowledge from industrial production line sensors into digital twin models is presented. A method for extracting and inferring knowledge from large-scale production line data is presented [93], [94]
2017 Robert Bohlin
Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre Chalmers Science Park
Smart assembly The infrastructure, components and data flows required for the digital twin to enable Smart Assembly 4.0 are detailed and highlighted [95], [96]
2017 Yuan-Shin Lee
North Carolina State University
Machine tools Techniques for deploying sensors to capture specific features of machines are discussed, and data and information fusion analysis techniques for modelling and developing digital twin virtual machine tools are presented [97]–[101]
2017 T. DebRoy
The Pennsylvania State University
Additively manufactured The perspectives of researchers from several organisations provide the current status and research needs of the main building blocks of first generation digital twin additive manufacturing [51], [54], [55]
2017 Benjamin Schleich
Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaät Erlangen-Nürnberg
Design and production engineering A comprehensive reference model based on the skin model shape concept is proposed which acts as a digital twin of the physical product in design and manufacturing [36], [102]
2017 Fei Tao
Beihang University
Smart shop-floor The concept of the digital twin-based Digital Twin Shop is explored and the four key components of digital twins are discussed, namely the physical shop, the virtual shop, the shop service system and the shop digital twin data [23], [43], [70], [103]–[108]
2018 Lohtander, Mika
Lappeenranta University of Technology
Micro manufacturing unit The Micro Manufacturing Unit (MMU) used is a digital twin research environment that investigates how digital twins are constructed and what information is needed to describe the real behaviour of the digital model of the MMU [109], [110]
2018 Macchi, Marco
Department of Management
Asset lifecycle management Examines the role of Digital Twin in supporting decision making in asset lifecycle management [111]–[113]
2018 Moussa, Cynthia
Electrical Engineering Department École de Technologie Supérieure Montreal
Hydro generator A digital twin concept based on a finite element simulator for large hydro generators is proposed [114]
2019 Qingfei Min
Dalian University of Technology
Petrochemical Industry A framework and method for building a digital twin model based on the petrochemical industry IoT, machine learning and a practical cycle of information exchange between the physical plant and the virtual digital twin model is proposed to enable production control optimisation [115]
2020 Roman Bambura
Technical University in Zvolen
Engine block manufacturing The framework for the implementation of the digital twin of the engine body manufacturing process consists of a physical layer, a virtual layer and an information processing layer [71]
2020 Yu N Bulatov
Bratsk State University
Generation Plant The concept of a digital twin of a distributed generation unit with automatic voltage regulation and automatic speed regulation of a fuzzy self-tuning unit on the basis of a synchronous generator is presented [65], [66]
2020 A E Burov
Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS
Composite pressure vessel Development of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel digital twin device for spacecraft electric propulsion engines [68]
2020 Kirill Nemtinov
Tambov State Technical University
Agricultural machine A method for building a digital twin model or e-model of complex agricultural machinery is presented and its structure is proposed as a set of frameworks [61], [116]
2020 Sungshin Kim
Pusan National University
Microgrid An operational scheduling model for energy storage systems applied to virtual space is proposed for building microgrids using digital twin technology [117]
2020 Yang Peng
Shanghai Construction No. 4 (Group) Limited Company
Smart buildings and smart city A successful project case of a large hospital in China is reported by presenting both technical and managerial innovations—a “continuous lifecycle integration” approach based on the digital twin concept and “early movement” of the general contractor [57], [67], [74], [75]
2021 Carina L. Gargalo
Technical University of Denmark
Bio-manufacturing industry Biomanufacturing and other process industries now have the opportunity to participate in the latest industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0. In order to achieve this successfully, an information loop from physical to digital and back again should be carefully developed [60]
2021 Brendan Kochunas
University of Michigan
Nuclear power Some areas of the existing modelling and simulation infrastructure around nuclear power systems are suitable for digital twin development, while recent efforts in advanced modelling and simulation are less appropriate at this time [118]
2022 Yongli Wei
Shandong University
Manufacturing system An implementation strategy for the physical entities of a manufacturing system digital twin is investigated. The strategy begins with an application-oriented requirements analysis of the physical entities of the manufacturing system digital twin, followed by a study of the optimal requirements deployment scheme using axiomatic design theory [119]