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Table 1 List of current major digital twin technologies in the past decade

From: Digital Twin for Integration of Design-Manufacturing-Maintenance: An Overview







Eric J. Tuegel

U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory


A conceptual model for predicting the lifetime and ensuring the structural integrity of aircraft structures using digital twin technology is proposed

[48], [49], [76]–[78]


E. H. Glaessgen

Durability and Damage Tolerance Branch

NASA Langley Research Center

Aviation and aerospace

Combining digital twin technology with ultra-high fidelity simulation, an integrated vehicle on-board health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to reflect the lifespan of its on-the-fly digital twin

[34], [46], [47]


Albert Cerrone

Cornell University

Structural fracture damage

By applying the concept of digital twins, the diagnosis of ambiguity in crack paths indicated the need to consider fabricated specimens



Dr. Edward M. Kraft

United States Air Force


The USAF is developing and applying a Digital Thread/Digital Twin analysis framework to provide engineering analysis capabilities and support for decision making throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle



Schroeder, Greyce N

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Future manufacturing and product services

In the context of cyber-physical systems for implementing digital twins for future manufacturing and product service systems, a method is proposed for modelling the attributes associated with digital twins using AutomationML



Alam, Kazi Masudul

University of Ottawa

Cyber-physical system

A reference model for a cloud-based CPS, the digital twin architecture of C2PS, is proposed, in which the key attributes of C2PS are described analytically

[30], [35], [63], [89]–[92]


Banerjee, Agniva

University Of Maryland

Industrial production lines

A simple method for formulating knowledge from industrial production line sensors into digital twin models is presented. A method for extracting and inferring knowledge from large-scale production line data is presented

[93], [94]


Robert Bohlin

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre Chalmers Science Park

Smart assembly

The infrastructure, components and data flows required for the digital twin to enable Smart Assembly 4.0 are detailed and highlighted

[95], [96]


Yuan-Shin Lee

North Carolina State University

Machine tools

Techniques for deploying sensors to capture specific features of machines are discussed, and data and information fusion analysis techniques for modelling and developing digital twin virtual machine tools are presented



T. DebRoy

The Pennsylvania State University

Additively manufactured

The perspectives of researchers from several organisations provide the current status and research needs of the main building blocks of first generation digital twin additive manufacturing

[51], [54], [55]


Benjamin Schleich

Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaät Erlangen-Nürnberg

Design and production engineering

A comprehensive reference model based on the skin model shape concept is proposed which acts as a digital twin of the physical product in design and manufacturing

[36], [102]


Fei Tao

Beihang University

Smart shop-floor

The concept of the digital twin-based Digital Twin Shop is explored and the four key components of digital twins are discussed, namely the physical shop, the virtual shop, the shop service system and the shop digital twin data

[23], [43], [70], [103]–[108]


Lohtander, Mika

Lappeenranta University of Technology

Micro manufacturing unit

The Micro Manufacturing Unit (MMU) used is a digital twin research environment that investigates how digital twins are constructed and what information is needed to describe the real behaviour of the digital model of the MMU

[109], [110]


Macchi, Marco

Department of Management

Asset lifecycle management

Examines the role of Digital Twin in supporting decision making in asset lifecycle management



Moussa, Cynthia

Electrical Engineering Department École de Technologie Supérieure Montreal

Hydro generator

A digital twin concept based on a finite element simulator for large hydro generators is proposed



Qingfei Min

Dalian University of Technology

Petrochemical Industry

A framework and method for building a digital twin model based on the petrochemical industry IoT, machine learning and a practical cycle of information exchange between the physical plant and the virtual digital twin model is proposed to enable production control optimisation



Roman Bambura

Technical University in Zvolen

Engine block manufacturing

The framework for the implementation of the digital twin of the engine body manufacturing process consists of a physical layer, a virtual layer and an information processing layer



Yu N Bulatov

Bratsk State University

Generation Plant

The concept of a digital twin of a distributed generation unit with automatic voltage regulation and automatic speed regulation of a fuzzy self-tuning unit on the basis of a synchronous generator is presented

[65], [66]


A E Burov

Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS

Composite pressure vessel

Development of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel digital twin device for spacecraft electric propulsion engines



Kirill Nemtinov

Tambov State Technical University

Agricultural machine

A method for building a digital twin model or e-model of complex agricultural machinery is presented and its structure is proposed as a set of frameworks

[61], [116]


Sungshin Kim

Pusan National University


An operational scheduling model for energy storage systems applied to virtual space is proposed for building microgrids using digital twin technology



Yang Peng

Shanghai Construction No. 4 (Group) Limited Company

Smart buildings and smart city

A successful project case of a large hospital in China is reported by presenting both technical and managerial innovations—a “continuous lifecycle integration” approach based on the digital twin concept and “early movement” of the general contractor

[57], [67], [74], [75]


Carina L. Gargalo

Technical University of Denmark

Bio-manufacturing industry

Biomanufacturing and other process industries now have the opportunity to participate in the latest industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0. In order to achieve this successfully, an information loop from physical to digital and back again should be carefully developed



Brendan Kochunas

University of Michigan

Nuclear power

Some areas of the existing modelling and simulation infrastructure around nuclear power systems are suitable for digital twin development, while recent efforts in advanced modelling and simulation are less appropriate at this time



Yongli Wei

Shandong University

Manufacturing system

An implementation strategy for the physical entities of a manufacturing system digital twin is investigated. The strategy begins with an application-oriented requirements analysis of the physical entities of the manufacturing system digital twin, followed by a study of the optimal requirements deployment scheme using axiomatic design theory