- Original Article
- Open Access
Experimental Evaluation on Grinding Texture on Flank Face in Chamfer Milling of Stainless Steel
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 25 January 2017
- Accepted: 9 August 2018
- Published: 20 August 2018
The surface quality of chamfer milling of stainless steel is closed related to the products of 3C (Computer, Communication and Consumer electronics), where a cutter is a major part to achieve that. Targeting a high-quality cutter, an experimental evaluation is carried out on the influence of grinding texture of cutter flank face on surface quality. The mathematic models of chamfer cutter are established, and they are validated by a numerical simulation. Also the grinding data are generated by the models and tested by a grinding simulation for safety reasons. Then, a set of chamfer cutting tools are machined in a five-axis CNC grinding machine, and consist of five angles between the cutting edge and the grinding texture on the 1st flank faces, i.e., 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. Furthermore, the machined cutting tools are tested in a series of milling experiments of chamfer hole of stainless steel, where cutting forces and surface morphologies are measured and observed. The results show that the best state of both surface quality and cutting force is archived by the tool with 45° grinding texture, which can provide a support for manufacturing of cutting tool used in chamfer milling.
- Grinding texture
- Chamfer cutter
- Cutting force
- Surface quality
In modern 3C industry (Computer, Communication and Consumer Electronics), the metal shell provides a better experience in both touch and visual than plastic one. Many companies have launched the products with metal shell since 2013, e.g., Apple, Samsung, HTC, Huawei, Lenovo, OPPO, Xiaomi and Meizu . Here, the machining process plays a key role in the delivery of the 3C products with high machining quality, especially with surface quality. During machining, high-quality surface is usually obtained by optimising cutting parameters and tool geometrical parameters . Among other factors, the grinding texture on tool flank face is closely related to the surface quality, due to it is in contact with finish surface directly during machining.
Targeting the suitable parameters of grinding texture generating good surface quality in chamfer machining, a series of experiments are carried out in this research. The remainder of this paper is organised as follows. Literature review is described in Section 2, followed by the manufacture of the chamfer cutting tool in Section 3, including mathematic models, numerical simulation, grinding simulation, etc. Experiment setups are presented in Section 4, and the experimental results of cutting force and surface quality are illustrated in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 concludes this paper.
There are many factors influencing the surface quality of machined parts generally, e.g., geometrical parameters of chamfer tool, material properties, cutting parameters, coolant, and lubricants, etc.
Geometrical parameters of the chamfer tool influence the machined surface quality directly. Xiong et al.  analysed the influence of point appearance of cemented carbide cutting tools on quality of the machined surface. To improve the surface quality, the wiper technique was employed in super long rod processing by Lai et al. . Wang et al.  analysed the effects of rake angle and flank angle of the tool on machined surface roughness of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal in diamond turning. Jiang et al.  introduced that the comparison test of surface quality and tool wear was carried out using three polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools with different grinding surface quality, and flank surface quality of PCD cutting tool has a big influence on machined surface quality, but has less effects on cutting tool’s life. The effect of the tool flank wear (VB) on the surface roughness and cutting force was studied by Wu et al. , and the mechanism of production was discussed. Dong et al.  reported that the machined surface quality can be improved by using a designed diamond tool sharpness.
Textured surface was applied to cutting tools to improve their performances, e.g., cutting force , cutting temperature , anti-adhesiveness [11, 12], and tool wear . Obikawa et al.  proposed a set of experimental comparison of four types micro-textured coated tool in turning of an aluminium alloy A6061-T6, as a result of which, friction force and the coefficient of friction were reduced. Deng et al.  proposed three carbide tools with textured rake-face with filled with solid lubricants in dry cutting. Their experiments demonstrated the tool performances were improved comparing to cutting tool without textures, where cutting force, cutting temperature, and friction coefficient are reduced. They also applied a carbide tool within the three tools in dry cutting of titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V, and the similar results were obtained . The textured Al2O3/TiC ceramic tool were also tested in dry cutting of hardened steel, and the result showed that the chip morphology and chip curl were changed, and that the tool wear was reduce by the textured self-lubricated tools . Xie et al.  proposed a set of experiments using cutting tool with a non-coated micro-grooved rake face, and the results showed cutting temperature and cutting force were reduced significantly. Fatima et al.  proposed a turning inserts with structured rake-flank face used in machining of AISI/SAE 4140. In their experiments, the textured cutting tools showed better performances in. reducing compress ratio, cutting force, cutting temperature, and flank face wear. Sugihara et al.  designed a kind of cubic boron nitride with textured flank face which was used in high-speed machining of Inconel 718, a kind of superalloys. As a result of their experiments, a cutting tool with micro grooves orthogonal to cutting edge set back from the cutting edge significantly showed the best cutting edge state.
Cutting parameter selection is an important factor to improve the surface quality. Zou et al.  developed a new cutting tool using a hot-pressed technology, and evaluated the cutting performance using a standard orthogonal array experiment. Fan et al.  reported the optimised cutting parameters used in turning of Inconel 718 with PVD coated carbide tool, improving the surface quality. Kong et al.  analysed the impact of high speed milling parameters on the surface roughness, residual stress, and the distribution of residual stress, respectively, in a series of single factor experiments. Hu et al.  proposed a selection method of cutting parameters to improve the surface quality in precision and ultra-precision machining. Sonawane et al.  presented an optimisation method of the machining parameters by using a central composite design with each variable taken at five levels in terms of the design constraints, e.g. product thickness, product inclination and cutter orientation. In addition, Mustea et al.  analysed the roughness and hardness through investigating the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth) on the surface quality machined in turning of AZ61 magnesium alloy. Mgwatu  proposed an integrated optimisation models of machining parameters considering tool wear and surface quality in multi-pass turning operations. Chirita et al.  used three cooling methods, e.g., dry cutting, minimum quantity lubrication and compressed air, to investigate the influences of cooling systems on surface quality of magnesium alloy parts. Salisbury et al.  found a way of mapping grinding wheel topography on the workpiece via a geometric–kinematic model in a single-pass surface grinding process. In their model, table speed, wheel speed, wheel topography and original workpiece surface texture were concerned.
From the literature survey, many factors related to surface quality of the machined parts have been addressed, e.g., geometrical factor, micro-texture, and cutting parameters. However, there are few reports concerning the grinding texture on cutting tool flank face, in particular in the chamfer machining of hole. Therefore, this paper is focused on the relationship between the machined surface and grinding texture on flank face in the chamfer milling of stainless steel.
Manufacturing of chamfer cutting tool starts with the establishment of the mathematical models including rake face, 1st flank face and 2nd flank face. Following that, the simulation of the models is carried out for the safety reason, and then machining process is driven by the simulated models.
3.1 Mathematical Model of Cutting Tool
3.2 Numerical Simulation on Cutting Tool Models
3.3 Grinding Processes of Cutting Tool
Geometric parameters of chamfer tool
Edge length (mm)
Tool length (mm)
Rake angle (°)
1st flank angle (°)
2nd flank angle (°)
KEYENCE VHX-1000 digital microscopeis utilised to observe the machined chamfered surface. A white light interferometer, Talysurf CCI PM, is selected to measure the surface roughness of machined chamfer.
The influences of grinding texture on cutting force, surface form and roughness are analysed accordingly in this section.
5.1 Cutting Force
5.2 Surface Forms and Roughness
The friction type between the flank face of the tools and the workpiece surface is mixed friction. The one part of the friction surface is separated by oil film, and the other part of the friction surface is contacted. The texture directions determine the frictional behaviour and lubricant retention of flank, which effects the cutting force, surface generation and roughness.
A set of cutting tools with five angles of texture angle, i.e., 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°, are modelled, simulated, machined and tested accordingly to evaluate the grinding texture on flank face. Cutting force, surface quality and surface roughness are observed.
The cutting force is decreased with texture angle increasing from 0° to 45°, and then is increased. The lowest cutting force is achieved at 45° grinding texture angle.
The burn and the coarse texture are the main defect patterns in chamfer milling of stainless steels. The best surface quality is achieved at 45° grinding texture.
Surface roughness Sa is decreased with texture angle increasing from 0° to 45°, and then is increased. It is obvious that the best state of surface roughness is archived by the tool with 45° grinding texture.
Combining the results of cutting force, surface quality, and surface roughness, it is obvious that the best machining state is obtained at 45° texture angle, i.e. the lowest cutting force, the best surface form, and the lowest surface roughness.
XLL and WJ was in charge of the whole trial; JKS and WJ wrote the manuscript; LHW assisted with sampling and laboratory analyses. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Xian-Li Liu, born in 1961, is a professor at Harbin University of Science and Technology, China. His majors are cutting tool technology and metal cutting.
Jin-Kui Shi, born in 1989, is a master candidate, and he focuses on cutting tool manufacturing technology.
Wei Ji, PhD, born in 1986, is a post doctor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. His major is focused on cutting tool manufacturing technology and process planning.
Li-Hui Wang, is a professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. He focuses on process planning, cloud manufacturing, and human-robot collaboration.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Supported by Heilongjiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. QC2016070).
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